ȯ濡 ѱŰе ǥȭ

ΰ

 ѱʼȰ

 

Direction of Standardization of Korean Keypad Under Conversions of Broadcasting and Communication

 

Min-Kyum KIM

Center of Movement of Usage of Korean First Consonant

 


 


Abstract

Data communication such as E-mail has been mainly used via PC, but the Short Message Service (SMS) is widely used in mobile phone after the Personal Communication Service (PCS) was started.  Broadcasting technology such DMB is also possible in mobile terminal.  Recently, the E-mail and searching internet is possible in broadcasting terminal such as remote controller of IP-TV.  The conversionce of terminals and services will be accelerated, if technology is updated. 

Today, numeric keypad is used in various fields, for example, telephone, mobile phone, remote controller, ATM machine, etc.  Standardization of Korean keypad on which Korean alphabet characters are marked has been argued.

In this paper, the current standard Korean keypad and current text input method of Korean from keypad will be reviewed, and the properties of proper standard Korean keypad is presented.  Even though how to induce standardization of Korean keypad is very sensitive matter, it is also mentioned briefly.   

 

Keyowrds

Standard Korean Keypad, Standardization of Korean Keypad, Korean Text Input Method

 

1        

Űе : ǥ ȭ Ǵ ޴ 12 Ű

ѱŰе : Űе忡 ѱ ( Űе忡 ڸ ϰ ѱ۸ ǥ )

  

2         ѱ

ѱŰе ǥȭ ʿ, ſ ǥȭ ʿ, ̸ ʿ Ͽ ؾ ̴.

ѱŰе ǥȭ ǵǾ.

(1) ѱʼ Ȱ (198x Ĺ . 1988 ǥ ѱŰе )

(2) ѱ Է ȭ (199x ߹ . ̿Ϸ)

 

ѱʼȰ Ϸ, ѱ Ư ѱ ڸ 캸ƾ Ѵ.  ѱ ü ϰ Ͽ ϳ "" ̷ ִ.  , "" "" Ͽ "" ϳ ڷ ǥǴ ̴.  "" ڴ δ ϳ "" ̷鼭 ÿ ϳ "" ǥǴ ̴.  ѱ ũԴ 19 ִ , ¿ 10 ׷ ׷εȴ.

 

 ׸1. ѱ

 

, , (. "", "", "") ǥ Ͽ ¿ ־ ϳ () ̷ ִ ִ.  "", "", "" , » Ϸ þ ̰, ¿ þ ̴.  , , ¿ ־ ִ ̴.

 

׸2.

 

3         ǥȭ - ѱ ʼȰ

ѱ ʼ Ȱ پ · Ÿ ִµ, ǥ Ѱ ϱϱ ڳ ڵ带 ȭ(Ǵ ȭ)Ͽ νϵ ϴ ̴. ʴ, ǥؿŰе忡 "FLOWERS" Ǵ 7ڸ ư (, "3569377") "3569377" ȭ Ǵ ̴.  "3569377" "FLOWERS" νϰ ϸ ȴ.  ܾ ĺ ̷ ü̳, ѱ ϳ ڸձڸ ̷ ü̹Ƿ, ϳ ڸձڿ ʼ Ǵ ̿ϴ ʼȰ Ѱ̴.  "010-ع λ" Ǵ ʼ "010- " Ǹ, ǿ Ǵ ̴.  ̸ ǻ "ʼ"̶ θ Ѵ.  ʼο ʼ ϳ ڰ ϳ ư εǾ Ѵ.  ̸ ؼ ѱ Ư Ͽ, ʼ Űе ڹư νŲ "ѱŰе" ʿϴ. 

ʼȰ 2° ǥ ʴ ޴ ּҷϿ ʼ ˻ϴ ִ.  ʼ ˻ ̹ 15 Ұ ̳, ѱ 1997 PCS (Personal Communication Service) ȭ Ͽ ޴ ȭ Ŀ, DZ Ͽ.  "" ̶ ܾ ʼ ϸ " = " ȴ.  "" Էϴ "" "" ˻ ִ.  ̸ ǻ "ʼ˻"̶ θ Ѵ.  ׷ٸ, ѱŰе忡 "" ִ Ǵ ȿ Է ִ ؾ ̴. 

ʼΰ ʼ˻ ϴ ƴ ȣ ִ ̸, ʼȰ ǥ ʷ õǾ, ʼȰ ʼΰ ʼ˻ Ѿ پ · Ÿ ִ.  ʼ "" ̶, ʼ˻ ʼΰ Է ߰ ´ٰ ִ.

ʼΰ ʼ˻ ִ ѱŰе尡 "ѹα ǥ (üź ȭ ԰ 1988.11)" Ǿ ִ.  ѹαǥ ѱŰе̸, Ư¡ ѱ ǥ ִ 10 10 ڹư ̴.  ǥ (. "") Բ ǥǾ, ¿ ־, ǥ Ƿ, ǥô Ͽ, 񿵾 ѱ۹ȭǿ Ǿ ǹǷ, ĺ Բ ǥǾ.

 

 

׸3. ǥ ѱŰе (üź ȭ ԰ 1988.11)

 

ǥ ѱŰе带 μϿ ƽ信 Ǿ ǰ ̴.

 

 

׸4. 1990~1992 ƽ ǰ ǥ ѱŰе

 

ʼο "010-ع λ" Ǵ ʼ "010- " , "010-3051-6378" ȴ.  ڴ ϱϱ "010-3051-6378" ſ, "010- " Ǵ ̴.  Կ "010-3051-6378" "010- " ƴ "010-ع λ" ǥǴ ̴.  ʼο ¿ ǥϹǷ, "ǻ = " Ǵ ʼ "163" ȴ.  ̴ ʼο ϳ ڿ ϳ ư εǾ Ѵٴ Ģ Ѵ. 

ι° ʼ˻ ѱŰе忡 "" Ǵ "" ȴ.  ѱŰе尡 ʼ˻ 󸶳 ִ.  []ư , "" ȭ鿡 ǥõȴٰ ϸ, "" , "" ǥõǸ, ڴ "" ̶ ܾ ø ִ.  ʼ˻ Ѱ "" Ǵ ʼ " = 999" Է "" ˻ǵ ִ ̴.  ̷ ǥ ̿Ͽ ʼ˻ , ǥ ѱŰе ʼ ܾ Ͽ ˻ ִ ִ.  ̷ ʼ ǥ / ˻ϴ "ǥĪʼ˻" ̶ θ Ѵ.

 

 

4         ǥȭ Է¹ ȭ ʿ伺

޴ ü ٸ Է± äϰ ־, ȥ ʷǰ ִٴ ־ Դ.  ׷ ұϰ, ü Է± ߾ü ذ谡 ϰ ִ 2ʿ ģ ǥȭ õ Ǿ. 

Ͽ ǰ ִ ѱԷ± ϸ, ǻ " "̶ ĪѴ.

 

4.1         ä ѱԷ±

Ͽ Է± ̹ ˷ Ƿ ڼ ٷ ʴ´.  Zڻ ѱԷ± Ư¡ Ƽ(ݺ) Էϰ, "", "", "" ԷѴ.  ʼ ư Ǿ ȣ ߻Ѵ.  "" Էϸ "ī" ȴ.  "" Էϱ ؼ "" Էϰ , ȭǥư "" Ȯ , "" ԷϿ Ѵ.

 

 

׸6. Zڻ ä ѱŰе

 

"ع" Zڻ ѱŰе忡 ʼ "680" ȴ.  10 10 ڹư Ƿ, "ع" ٸ ܾ "" ʼ "680" ȴٴ ̴.  "ع = " ʼ˻ϱ Ͽ "38800 = " ϴµ, Է¹ư ޶, ġϴ ִ.  ǵ "" ƴ "" ԷµǾ "̿" ˻ ִ.  ǥĪʼ˻ Ͽ "680" "ع" ʼ˻ Ѵٰ ص, ڰ ǵϴ "ع" Ӹ ƴ϶, "ع" ʼ ٸ "" Բ ˻Ǵ ְ ȴ.

 

4.2         LG ä ѱԷ±

LGڻ ѱԷ± Ư¡ 6 (, "", "", "", "", "", "") ѹ , 6 (, [*]ư) (, [#]ư) Էϸ, 6 ("", "", "", "", "", "") " ", " " ݺ 6 ԷѴ.  ȣ Է ϸ, ԷŸ .

 

 

׸7. LGڻ ä ѱŰе

 

LGڻ ѱŰе 10 10 ڹư Ƿ, ʼȰ뿡 ſ ϴ  "λ = " ʼ "" ǥ ִ "", "" ǥ ִ "", ׸ "" ư ڰ ǥϸ, "527" ȴ.  "" Ͽ "" ʼο ؾ Ѵٴ ü ʹ ڿ, ٸ "ϻ" ʼ ڰ "527" Ǵ ִ.  ʼ˻ ־, "λ = " ʼ˻ϱ ؼ "5*2*7" Էؾ ϴµ, Է¹ư ġϴ ڿ ִ.  ǥĪʼ˻ Ͽ, "λ" ʼ "527" "λ" ʼ˻ Ѵٰ ϴ ʼ ٸ "ϻ" Բ ˻Ǵ ִ.

 

4.3         ѵڵ ѱԷ±

ѵڵ ǰ ִ ƴ, 2 ǥȭ ǿ ̹Ƿ, ҰѴ.  Ƿ, ⺻ݸ Ұϸ . 

ư 10 ư ѹ Էµȴ.  10 ư ѹ Էµȴ.  ̴ ѱ ڸձ ° "ʼ+߼+()" ̷ Ե ̸, ʱ ¿ ư ѹ ʼ, ư ٽ ѹ νϴ ̴.  , "1" "" νĵǰ, "1" ѹ Ƿ "" νϿ "" óϴ ̴. 

ǥ Ǵ [#]ư ش ư Ǿ ִ.  = #1 ϴ ̴.  ߰ [#]ư ԷѴ.  , " = 85#3" ̴.  ѱ ˷ֱ ѱ [*] ԷϿ Ѵ.  ѱó Ͽ ϱ [#]ư ִ ڿ ѱ [*]ư ʰ ѱԷ ǵ ϴ õ ־. ڴ ѱ ڸձ ִ νϸ鼭 ѱԷ ʴ´.  Ű忡 Ÿϸ鼭 ġ ִ ڴ ְ, ĥ ڴ ϸ鼭 ġ ƹ ϸ ִ.  Է , ڰ γ ׻ ؾ ϰ, ׶ [*]ư ־ ϴ ſ ū ̶ ִ.  ׷ "Է Ģ ܼ Ģ ؼ 3 Ģ Էϴ Է¼ӵ Ǽ " ̶ ڴ ϰ ִ.  ׷ ִ ڵ ˷ִ [*]ư ϸ, ԷŸ ġ ִ. 

̸Ƽ · Էϴ (. "Ф") , ѵڵ忡 ܵ Էϱ ִ.

 

 

׸8. ѵڵ ѱŰе

 

־, ϳ ư 3 ѱڼҰ 迭Ǿ ־, ϰ ãƾ ϴ δ ִ.  ʼ˻ " = " Էϰ ϴ , ư "" Ǵ "7938" ̴.  ׷ ѵڵ Է± Ư¡ "7938" , "" ȴ.  ѱԷ½ "7938" , "" Ǵµ, ʼ˻ "7938" , "" ؾ Ѵٴ ͵ ϰ ϴ ȴ.

ѵڵ Է¹ ǥȭ 10 10 ڹư ν ʼο Ư¡ ð ִ.  ׷ ʼο ־ ϰ ִ , ٸ "" "", "" "", "" "", "" "" ư Ǿ ִ.  "" ʼ ٸ "ġŸ" ʼ "45" ̴.  "" ʼ "555"ε, "" ʼ "", "" ʼ "353" Ǵ ִ.  ʼο ڿ Ӹƴ϶, ̹ ʼȰ ʼ Ѿ ʼ˻ ׸ ̻ ϴ , ѵڵ ѱԷ± ̹ ǰ ִ ʼ˻ ־ ſ ڿ ѱԷ±̴. 

 

4.4         Ī Ȯ ѱԷ± (http://www.simplecode.net)

ü Ͽ ä ̹Ƿ, ǻ ѱԷ±̶ ĪѴ.  ٸ Ͽ ˷ ̳ ٸ ڼ ϹǷ, URL ϱ ٶ. 

"" ~ "" , ư ѹ Էµȴ.  Է° []ư 2 , Է° []ư 2 Էµȴ.  , "" "" Ϸ þ ̹Ƿ = +Ѥ, "" "" ¿ þ ̹Ƿ = +Ӥ ȴ.  Է±Ģ ѱ » Ư¡ ѹ ʴ´.  "", "", "" ԷµǸ, ԷµǴ []ư "" ۿѴ.  ѱۿ "" 22% Ѵ 2Ÿ Էϴ "" 1Ÿ óϹǷ, Է ȿ 11% ̻ Ǿ ְ, ѱԷ± ԷŸ ϰ ִ.  ư ѱ۸忡 Ư Էµ ϸ, Ư ־ κ ο ѱԷ±̴.

 

 

׸9. Ī Ȯ ѱԷ± (http://www.simplecode.net)

 

ϴ ""ϰ ư ϳ ڼҸ 迭Ǿ ְ, ʼȰ뿡 ־, ǥ ѱŰе ִ ִ.  [0]ư "" "0" "" ȭϸ, ʼο [0]ư "" Ǵ ư ǹѴ. 

Ȥڴ ѱŰе忡 Ƽ(ݺ)(. Zڻ ѱԷ¹ ó ݺ "--") Ͽ Էϴ ϴ ִ.  ׷, ̷ ϸ, Zڻ ѱԷ± , "" Է , "ī" Ǵ .  Ӹƴ϶, " = " ʼ˻ Ϸ , "" "" ǥõǴ ڿ򿡵, "" ǥõǴ ġ ְ, " = " ʼ˻ϱ "" , "" ƴ "" ǥõǴ ġ ְ ȴ.  ݴ "" ʼ "" Էϰ , "", "", "" ִ ִ.

 

5         ѱԷ± ǥر ߾

ʼȰ ʼ˻ ѱԷ° ʼȰ ִ.  ׸ ʼȰ ʼ Űе ذ ִ ̰, ѱԷ± Űе Ҿ ѱԷ± ϴ ˰ , ʼ˻ ߰ ִ ִ.  ׸ Ÿ ִ. 

 

׸10. ʼȰ ѱԷ±

 

Űе忡 ѱԷ±(ѱŰе ) ߾ ſ ϸ .  ѱŰе ü ߾ ѱԷ ˰ ߾ Ͽ Ѵ.

 

- ʼȰ

10 10 ڹư ʼ, ʼ˻

ư ѹ Է ʼ˻ ڿ

 

- Է±

Է±Ģ ܼϰ н ̼, ӻ ڿ

° ϱ ϸ( ڼҸ ư ġ), ѱ ڼ Ģ ϼְ ̼/ϼ

ȣ Է

ԷŸ ȿ

Ÿ ȿ

 

ʼȰ õ ̹ ϿǷ, Է± ؼ Ѵ.  ԷŸ Ÿ ߿õǾ ǥ̴.  ׷, ؿ ö ִ ѱԷ± ̸ , ԷŸ Ÿ ξ ߿ ҵ ִ.  ǥ Zڻ ѱԷ± LGڻ ѱԷ± ԷŸ 20% ̻ , ڵ LGڻ Է±Ⱑ Zڻ ѱԷ± 20% ٰ ʴ´. 

߿ Ѱ, Է±Ģ ܼ ߿伺̴.  ڿ 󼭴 Է±Ģ ټ ѹ ׸ ƴϳİ ϴ ִ.  ׷, ϸ鼭 ٰŰ Է¹, ͼ ÿ γ "δ" 䱸Ѵٴ ̴.  ǥ Zڻ ѱԷ± "", "", "" Էϴ ԷŸ ȿ (Zڻ Է± LGڻ Է± 20% Ÿ Ÿ ), / ſ Ư¡ ְ ִ.  ѹ ؾ ʴ ִ ̴.  ̷ Է± ÿ "" ִ Ұ ǰ, ݴ ̷ Է± ÿ "δ" ִ Ұ ȴ. 

ϱ ſ ߿ ̴.  Ư ϼ ִ ڼ ʸ , LGڻ ѱŰе ¿Ī ұĢ , Zڻ ѱŰе 7 ư 2 ġ ұϰ LGڻ ѱŰе ¿Ī ִ ϰ , Է±ν ߾ ſ ߿ ̴.

ȣ غ ׸ ־, ʼ ̴.  Űе Է± ȣ ص ġ ̴.  Zڻ ѱԷ±⿡ "" Է , "" Է , ȭǥ ư "" Ȯϰ, "" ԷϿ "" ϼؾ Ѵ.  PC Ű忡 ׷ ؾ Ѵٸ, ̸ ޾Ƶ ִ ڰ ְڴ° Ѵٸ, ̴. 

ǥ Ǿ , ϴ ̾ ϴ ڸϴ.  ׷ ̺ ߿ , Է½ý "ü ȭ" ߿ϴٴ ̴.  ׸񺰷 Űܼ 1̴ ϴ ǹ̰ .  μߴȸ, , , , ߰ , ... Ͽ ϴ 򰡰 ū ǹ̰ ְڴ°.  ݱ ǥȭ õ ߴ Ѱ ̱⵵ ϴ.

 

6         ѱԷ± ǥȭ

ѱŰе ǥȭ ʿ, ſ ǥȭ ʿ, ̸ ʿ ٽ ϸ, ſ ʿ߰, ݵ ʿϰ, ε ʿϴٴ ̴.  , ۰ յǴ ߿伺 ̷ ̴.  ѱŰе ѱŰе带 ϴ ѱԷ± ļյ Ͽ ȭ 100 ʼ ̴.  ׷ ѱŰе ѱԷ± ǥȭ ǰ ִ ذ踦 Ŀ ִ κп ؾ ̴.  ̹ ѱŰе ǥ 20 ؼ ݱ ǰȭ ϰ ִ ٷ ذ Ŀ ϴ Ѱ̴.  ȭô ѱۻ̸ , ݿ ͼ ǥȭ ŷϴ ٸ Ѱ̴.  캸ҵ ѱŰе ѱԷ± ǥȭ ȴٰ Ͽ ǥ ƴ ̴.

ѱԷ±Ⱑ ִ ־ ̴.  ƹ ִ ִ ִ.  LGڻ簡 ä ѱԷ± Ư 絵޾, ߼ ܸ ȸ翡 ̼ϸ鼭, "߼ü " ̶ ߴ.  ׷ٸ, Ҿ ִ ߼ ܸ ü (ǻ ߱ ǰ ü) ֱ ؼ, ÷ Է± ϴ ũ ߼Һó ϵ ڶ⵵ öϰ ¢ Ѵٴ ۿ ʴ´  ü ߼ұ ""̶ ΰ.  ߼ü ѱԷ± Ѵٰ , 10 ¥ ܸ ǰ鼭 ܸ 100 ޶µ ְڴٰ ߼ұ ̴.

ǥȭ õ ݱ 2 Ͽ. ٺ ̳ "ȸյ"̶ Ͽ.  ڿ ִ ȸ ϰ, ο ǥȭ ð ɸ Ѵ.  ϰ ޾Ƶ ƴ϶ ϴ´.  ٸ, Ϻ λ ׷ ִٰ . Ը Է± ϴ ó ִ ݵ ־ ϸ, ̴ ý ؼ ʿ ̴.

ǥȭ ʿѰ ؼ ʿϴٰ ִ.  װ Ư Է± ٰŷ ¿ ǥȭ ƴ, ùٸ ǥ ȴٴ Ͽ ִ ̴.  ǻ , ǥȭ ʿ δ.  ߿ , 츮ܷ, ư ļ Բ ǥ̶ ̴.  ڰ ڿ̵, ѱŰе Ȱ ߴ ڿ̶ νϰ, ذ迡 ʴ ǥȭ ǿ ʿϴٴ ̴.

 

[η1] ʼȰ ʼο 10 ʿ

 

ʼ ̿ϴµ ־, 10 10 ڹư ġϰ ѱԷ± ϴ , 9 ̿ڴ ǰ ִ.   ǥ Ѱ "" "" ϳ ư Բ ̸, ߸ ʷ Ͽ ִ.  ׷ к ϸ, "" "" ٸٴ ̴. 

9 ƴ 10 Ͽ ϴ Ѵ.  "" "" ϳ ư δ ߿ Ģ ִ.  Ģ Ͽ ܾ ùҸ "" ʴ´.  ׷ ܷ Ģ ʾ, "" ǥѴ.  ׸ ܾ ߰ ʼ "" ̴.  , "", "" ܾ ִ.  Ģ ʴµ, 𸣴 Ģ ״ մ ʴ´.  Ģ ε, ̹ ܷ ټ ǰ ִ ǿ, "", "" ƴٰ ִ°?  "", "" ؾ߸ ִ°?  "" ģ Ҽ Ͽ "" ƴ "" ǥϴ κ ޾ ϰ ִ.  ׸ Ȱ յǴ ܰ谡 ´ٸ, Ģ ڿ Ǵ ñⰡ ȴ. 

ѱ 4-4 Ǵ 3-4 ǹ̸ 󸶵 ִ.  ǥ ʴ "ҵ ٽú", "ʵ ҵ", ... ִ.  ʼ ִ ǥ ʷ 010-xxxx-xxxx, 070-xxxx-xxxx ִ.  α Ͽ 1 ȵǴµ, 10^8 1 α ִ ȴ.  ׷ 9 ̿ 9^8 = 43,046,721 4õ Ѵ ִ.  ó ʼ ǥ ޶ , 9 ư ϴ Ͱ 10 ư ϴ ū ̸ ʷѴ.  Zڻ ѱŰе ó 7 ư Ǿ ִٸ, ʼ ǥ 7^8 = 5,764,801 10 ư 1 ǥ 5.7% ۿ ǥ Ѵ.  LGڻ ѱŰе 6^8 = 1,679,616 1 1.6% ۿ ǥ Ѵ.

 

[η2] Ϻ ǥȭ

 

Ϻ ĺ ĺ 46 50 ü迡 зȴ.  Ź, Ź, ĺ( ѱ , ) ټ Ѵ.

 

ǥ1. Ϻ 50ǥ

 

[a]

[i]

[u]

[e]

[o]

1

[a]

[i]

[u]

[e]

[o]

2

[ka]

[ki]

[ku]

[ke]

[ko]

3

[sa]

[si]

[su]

[se]

[so]

4

[ta]

[chi]

[tsu]

[te]

[to]

5

[na]

[ni]

[nu]

[ne]

[no]

6

[ha]

[hi]

[hu]

[he]

[ho]

7

[ma]

[mi]

[mu]

[me]

[mo]

8

[ya]

 

 

[yu]

 

 

[yo]

9

[ra]

[ri]

[ru]

[re]

[ro]

10

[wa]

 

 

 

 

 

 

[wo]

 

 

׸11. ǥ ϺŰе

 

׷ 50ǥ Ϻ ƴϴ ̷ ϺŰе带 ִ.  1 , , , , ϳ ׷ ̷ Ƿ, ׷ ǥϴ ĺ [1]ư ΰ, μ, ѱ ʼο ϴ Ϻ "󰡳" ڿ Ȱ ִ ̴.  ٸ, Է¿ ſ ̳, Ϻ ϺŰе带 ǥ Ͽ, Է± ȭDZ 199x ߹ݿ ̴ Ϻ ǰ ȭ⿡ ϺŰе尡 ǥǾ Ǿ. 1990~1992 Ѷ ƽڿ ǥ ѱŰе带 ǥ ȭ⸦ ߴ Ͱ ƶ ִ.  ׸ ͳݰ˻ ã ֱ Ϻ ޴ ̴. , ǥ ϺŰе尡 μǾ ִ.

 

 

׸12. ǥ ϺŰе ޴

 

ϺŰе ǥȭ Ͽ û Ѱ ϺŰе常 ǥȭϿ װ, Ϻ Է± ü ǥȭ ʾҴٴ ̴.  ϺŰе忡 ϺԷ± ϴ ˷ ִµ, Ѱ Ƽ(ݺ) Ŀ Ͽ [1]ư ѹ , ι , , ׹ , ټ ԷµǴ ̴.  ȣ ټ ߻ ۿ .  ϺŰе尡 ϺԷ¿ ̳, ϺԷ± ϰ ־ Ϻ Է± ϰ ִ. 

Ϻ ǥ ϺŰе Ȯ , Ƹ 1990 Ͽ 츮󺸴 ʰ δ.  츮󿡼 ν ǥر ޵ Ͽ.  ǥ ϺŰе尡 ִ ڽ ü迡 ȭ Űе ǥ ϰ ״ٴ ̴.  ̴ Ϻ ü ȭ ü踦 , Ѱ迡 ұϰ ּ ϰ ۾ Ҵٴ ûϴ ٴ ſ ũ.

 

 

[1] ǻͼ ѱ